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Most of the factors involved There is little evidence that man practiced artificial selection in maize in the early stages of domestication. Smith, ; Meade, For Mexican granaries, see Hernandez Xolocotzi, The early history of this important pre-Classic culture in the Valley of Mexico is worth placing in the record.

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As far back as the French Abbde Brasseur de Bourbourg wrote , p. In , Mrs. Nuttall noted some "small clay heads" with which children were playing near the quarry of Copilco. Recognizing them as different from both the Aztec heads and those from Teotihuacan, she started to gather them. In o9, while visiting Bishop Plancarte in Cuernavaca, she noted in his collection, made from to in Tacuba and from oo in the states of Guerrero, Morelos, Hidalgo and Mexico, similar "archaic clay heads.

The first specimen of this type was probably that described by Troncoso and Plancarte in Plancarte, ; Nuttall, I employed this term to mean neither first nor undeveloped and primitive but, as in Greek and Egyptian archaeology, a period preceding the Classic and marked by a crudity as compared only with that which followed. In Spinden presented, in the first edition of his handbook, the New World "Archaic Hypothesis," still "a brilliant suggestion. Since then, the evidence of these cultures has been found to cover a wide geographical area, extending from the Southwest United States through Mexico and Central America to the Isthmus and possibly into South America.

The remains of the Archaic horizon throughout the greater part of Middle America have several points in common. The pottery is generally monochrome or bichrome, usually of many shapes, and decorated with simple incised or painted designs. There is a relatively high development of figurines, usually of females, all modeled by hand, and many showing vestiges of paint.

That all this indicates the beginning of a fertility cult is pure supposition.

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There is a distinct agricultural economy and a sedentary population behind these cultures. Only a few buildings or structures have, up to the present time, been definitely associated with these early remains.

Shook reports several at Kaminaljuyu and in the Guatemala Valley area. Before discussing the Archaic in tilhe Maya area, I shall list some of the places in central and southern Mexico where this horizon appears. The most extensive investigation in any one region was made by G. Vaillant in and near the Valley of Mexico from to Libby , Nos. C , making use of the radiocarbon technique, has published the probable years of age of specimens from the Valley. Transposing these figures into Christian chronology we find that Early Archaic Zacatenco corresponds to B.

In G. Gordon, while on an archeological expedition for Peabody Museum, discovered in the gravels of the Ulua River and in the Copan caves, Honduras, figurines and pottery later identified as belonging to the Archaic culture.

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To this list should be added the pre-Acropolis stage at Copan and sites in western Salvador, especially Usulutan Longyear, Shook found the only tombs belonging to this early stage to be scientifically examined. Lothrop, , It has been only within the last few years that either the Archaic or the Classic period has been generally recognized in the peninsula. Evidence establishing these two horizons there continues to accumulate as more intensive work is being done. Our information on the Archaic or Formative is almost exclusively derived from the work of Brainerd , , Following the Florescent stage come three subdivisions of the Mexican stage.

The pottery indicates large bottles with a capacity of three gallons. The ware is mostly monochrome, "predominantly red, some white, orange and grayblack.

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Neither of the sites in the Middle period produces specimens which are similar to those of Chicanel. At Santa Rosa Xtampak Brainerd found a 3-m. The main ware is a slipped monochrome, most often a heavy, large, flat-bottomed bowl with flaring sides. There was one fabric stamp and one appliqued hand-modeled face from the side of a vessel. This relatively short list of sites in the peninsula with remains dating to the Archaic period is undoubtedly due to the scarcity of data on the ceramics.

Brainerd writes: With a partial exception in the case of the Puuc sites, every major ruin sampled showed pure or nearly pure Late Formative deposits in the bottoms of trenches. The Formative sherds from the ruins, however, seldom exceed a tenth of the total collection There thus seems to have been a well distributed and probably heavy Formative population in Yucatan, and the location of Formative sites were clung to with surprising tenacity by the later Maya peoples.

The end date of the Yucatan Formative is established by cross ties with Uaxactun where the Chicanel ceramic period ended before the carving of the first stela, at about A. An "enormous pyramid" at Yaxuna, at the western end of the famous Coba causeway and just south of Chichen is regarded by Brainerd as Archaic. Both occur on monuments from Uaxactun. These two limiting dates in the Maya system of nomenclature are usually considered as 8.

The Spinden correlation A is about or years earlier. Thompson wrote: One important result of the establishment of these ceramic sequences is to divorce Maya history from the stela complex.

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It is now clear that the interval spanned by inscriptions on monuments bears no relation to the actual occupation of a site. Benque Viejo is a case in point.

The one sculptured stela carries the date lo. Another discouraging feature concerning dating by the Initial Series is shown at Copan. Longyear considers the determination of ceramic periods by stelae inscriptions at this site to be of very little value. He states that all the early monuments carved in the first part of the occupation of the site before 9.

It now seems clear that there was neither an Old nor a New Empire. The geographical provinces, already given, may be said to correspond roughly to centers of population. With a good deal of overlapping, the Peten with its outpost at Coba has a certain amount of unity and the Usumacinta drainage system forms another center, to mention only two. A map of the Maya ruins shows, scattered about the two great Peten centers of Tikal and Uaxactun, the largest concentration of important sites with dates in the hieroglyphic writing in the whole Maya region.

The communication between these sites was probably by land, although some authorities consider that at one time there was a series of lakes here. Our second area consists of important sites, smaller, in general, than those of the previous district, strung along the Usumacinta River and its many affluents. Here communication by water was possible. Excepting some rapids above the present town of Tenosique, southeast of Palenque, the river is navigable by cayucos from its many mouths up to and including much of its three main branches: the Lacantun, the Salinas or Chixoy, and the Rio de la Pasion.

These are only two of the archaeological provinces which were important centers in Classic times. Another, as we have seen, was in the south with Copan and Quirigua. A fourth was in the central highlands in Guatemala. Here the pattern of the material culture was very different from that of the other three.


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There is comparatively little sculpture here, few evidences of stone architecture, very few stelae, few altars, and, more difficult to explain, an almost total lack of important examples of hieroglyphic writing. In the attempts to recall the social-economicreligious history of the country, as we shall see, much stress has been laid on the fact that recording dates in the Initial Series ended about Here is an area with Classic remains long antedating which probably never had any hieroglyphic writing of any chronological significance.

It seems fairly certain that, in Classic times, there was not only no such thing as an "empire" but even in the provinces probably no one authority.


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Peaceful conditions, trade, interchange of ideas and techniques and probably of artists themselves, can perhaps be postulated. How much the lack of workable stone for facing buildings and for stelae and altars accounted for the absence of bas-relief and inscriptions in the Guatemalan highlands is a question not yet answered. In the Late Classic, along the Usumacinta River, it seems certain there were schools of art and design, with very typical ways of representing the dress and accoutrements of those in authority. There was here also a center for the manufacture of jade amulets and other ornaments.

This region, as we shall see, furnishes many parallels persisting into later times at Chichen. HIere are the great centers, marked by formalized plans and built of stone, most of them with dated monuments. The Classic era falls into two periods, whether based on pottery or on sculpture. The dividing date according to either yardstick, differs very little. Confining the study, for the present, to the most important sites in the central and southern lowlands, Proskouriakoff finds that the earliest examples of design in the Peten, dating from Early I, are represented at Uaxactun, Tikal, Xultun, and Yaxha.

Palenque, Bonampak, and other sites in Chiapas are not represented until the first or Formative phase of Late Classic. The basal-flange bowls, often with covers, found also at Holmul are most characteristic of the same horizon. The Esperanza phase at Kaminaljuyu also belongs here.